it is possible, but it is a slim chance. If the windows files happen to have been written in the same place, then the potential for data recovery may.. i say may be possible. You will want to look for software which is of the type undelete, unformat, or data recovery. Many of these programs are expensive, and i am not personally experienced with any of them (sorry). So unless the files are worth the expense and potential to not recover anything... I would say to accept that you made a mistake.
I would suggest that you take this as a (hard learned) lesson. Partition your drive and keep important documents and files on the 2nd partition, thus they are always kept protected from a similar accident, or OS specific virus, etc. Thus allowing you to back up on cd at a later date.